The well-researched guidebook to building sustainable, timeless communities - A Pattern Language - argues that the optimal portion of land allocated for transportation (in small to medium cities) is 19%. And the most dramatic incentive for decreasing the footprint/visual impact of parking is to tax land at a higher rate than buildings.
Policies & Regulation:
New Approaches to Parking Management (2021) produced by a GreenStep Cities technical advisor. This 13-page guide details the many benefits of updating parking requirements, policies, and practices. It includes steps to evaluate and modernize existing code, best practice examples, and resource list.
Parking Lots: Case Studies and a Model Ordinance (UofM, 2013) was developed for the City of Minnetonka, provides a literature review, shares parking regulations in neighboring communities, and makes 8 recommendations for the City’s ordinance. (Produced by the Resilient Communities Project at the University of Minnesota, 2012. Reproduced under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 3.0 UnportedLicense.)
Consider the “parking requirement adjustment factors” based upon your community’s land use mix, residential and employment density, demographics (income, housing tenure, owners/renters) walk/bike facilities, and parking management strategies in the publication Reduced and More Accurate Parking Requirements (Planetizen, 2017)
Donald Shoup, now retired from UCLA, authored the book: The High Cost of Free Parking (2005), a classic in the field of parking reform. He has also authored Parking and the City (2018) and numerous articles which have been published by Access magazine and Planning magazine. His data driven research showed the dubious statistics used in a key document on which many cities based their parking requirements. He promotes metered parking and the concept of parking benefit districts. His books and articles contain a wealth of data and examples.
In 2013, Minneapolis reduced parking requirements to zero for residential projects near high-frequency transit with 50 or fewer units, and projects with more than 50 units had requirements cut in half, to one parking space for every two units.
Consider fine-tuning/softening the availability of street parking by selectively converting parking spaces (on a pilot basis, seasonally or permanently) into parklets and outdoor (retail) seating. See the Parklet Manual (2017) and a 2011 Park(ing) Day Manual.
Engage community members and build support for parking changes through a Black Friday photo event, document unused parking during the busiest shopping day of the year.
Reduce parking stall dimensions; include parking maximums in development standards for at least pedestrian-friendly or transit-served areas; waive minimums for new or renovated developments; facilitate/allow/report parking lots sized below zoning minimums (used by multiple properties; shared lot use agreements among private parties); provide free/discounted parking for EVs. Report solar PV parking lot canopies under BP26.
Eliminate parking minimums; work with businesses to create a parking assessment district; price structured parking (lots, ramps), add dedicated EV charging spaces, mandate pay-per use (vs. monthly contracts); sponsor a Black Friday parking lot assessment contest; increase taxes on parking lots; selectively convert parking spaces (on a pilot basis, seasonally or permanently) into "parklets" and outdoor (retail) seating; experiment with a 1-day car-free street.
Bring an online parking space sharing service to your city; work with at least one housing developer to unbundle parking space rental/purchase from housing rental/purchase; allow/require a housing development to have fewer off-street parking slots in exchange for dedicated car-share spaces, discounted bus passes or car/bike share services; set performance parking policies/targets/pricing (to achieve 80% +/- 5% parking occupancy rate, or 1-2 open spaces per block face); use technology to adjust parking rates on an hourly, daily or seasonal basis; assess parking district revenue to create a parking benefit district that returns all/nearly all revenue to district improvements, such as parking lots/ramps, transit and streetscaping.
Who's doing it
Edina - 3 star
Date action report first entered:
Date of last report update:
Year action initially completed: 2021
Ordinance No. 2021-07, 'An Ordinance Amendment Regarding Off Street Parking Regulations' last updated on August 16, 2022 has amended the following: Parking space reductions stated in section 3 of the ordinance (Sec. 36-1324) wherein:
• the required number of parking spaces for a building or establishment may be reduced by 10% if the building is located within one quarter of a mile from a qualified transit stop.
• A reduction of up to one space per reserved parking space for car share vehicles or 5% of the of required parking spaces, whichever is greater, may be granted for any development that provides reserved parking for car-share vehicles.
• A 10% reduction in parking may be approved by the city planner or the city planner’s designee provided that one of the following conditions are met: (a) If a residential use: 1 covered, long-term bicycle parking space per 3 dwelling units. (b) If a retail or service use: 1 covered, long-term bicycle parking space per 5,000 square feet of retail or service uses. (c) 1 short-term bike space per 5,000 s.f. of retail/services uses.
• The area which would have been occupied by the eliminated parking spaces in items 1-3 above must be devoted to pervious surfaces, stormwater facilities, tree retention or native landscaping as directed by city planner or city planner’ designee.
District parking is also in place for 4 Planned Commercial Districts (PCDs).
Businesses located downtown and in Canal Park are not required to provide any off street parking. Businesses that are required by code to provide off street parking can have that number reduced if they are located close to transit hubs or can show that parking on nearby properties can handle additional traffic without issue.
Buildings are not allowed to build more than 150% of calculated parking minimums in an effort to cut down on excessive parking areas.
There are no parking requirements or minimums in the city of Elko New Market. Additionally, the parking lot for the new Water Treatment facility is made of a permeable surface material, thus eliminating the majority of storm water drainage.
Burnsville completed a parking study in 2006, and subsequently created maximum parking standards for shopping centers and offices. Shopping Centers that are less than 50,000 sq. ft. must have a minimum of 5.5 spaces and a maximum of 6 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. For shopping centers that are between 50,000 sq. ft and 100,000 sq. ft, the parking minimum is 4 spaces and the maximum is 4.5 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. For shopping centers that are greater than 100,001 square feet, the parking minimum is 4.5 spaces and the maximum is 5 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.
OFFICES that are 6,000 sq. ft. or less must have a minimum of 5 spaces and a maximum of 5.5 spaces per 1,000 square feet. Offices that are 6,000 sq. ft. or larger must have a minimum of 3.5 spaces and a maximum of 4 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.
Burnsville encourages developers to pursue "proof of parking".
The City helped to facilitate shared parking at Southwest Station which is a Transit Oriented Development. This project was approved in 2002.
Outcome measures/metrics/money saved:
The City supported Southwest Metro Transit to develop a transit hub on its property at the southwest corner of Highway 5 and Prairie Center Drive in Eden Prairie.
Through the PUD process the City granted density bonuses and incentives to allow for the higher intensity uses that are supportive of a transit hub.
The site provides a compact and pedestrian friendly mixed-use development that offers retail and restaurant services that are utilized by both transit customers and destination shoppers.
Shared parking occurs between the transit parking lot that is prominantly used during daytime business hours and the adjacent property that has land uses (such as entertainment and dining) that could utilize these parking facilities during evening and weekend hours when transit is not running its peak service.
Two ponds were built for water quality and flood storage for the western portion of the property. Both ponds are privately owned and maintained. The ponds were constructed with a 10:1 bench at the normal water level for vegetation growth and for safety concerns.
The project with waivers results in a design with additional interior green space, including perennial gardens, to help soften the visual appearance of parking lots and provide internal pedestrian connections.
The City of Fridley decreased the required parking stall width from 10 feet to 9 feet within the multiple dwelling, industrial, manufacturing land uses
The City of Fridley also allows for a reduction in the number of required parking stalls/sharing of parking stalls between private properties when a landowner can demonstrate that the required number of parking stalls is not needed and that adequate open space is provided to satisfy the
total number of required parking stalls.
The city's City Center (CC) zoning district defines a maximum parking ratio depending on the type of land use. A reduction down to the minimum parking ratio may be applied under the following circumstances:
-Principle use is located within 800 feet of a parking facility with public spaces available to the general public or within 800 feet of a public transit park and ride facility with an approved joint-use agreement.
-Shared parking areas between abutting uses.
-Payment in lieu of parking provided for use of existing municipal parking stall.
-A reduction in the required number of parking stalls may also be permitted if evidence is provided demonstrating that the parking requirements of the proposed use will be less than the number of parking stalls required above during the peak demand period, based on factors such as number of employees, type of use, projected volume of customer traffic, etc.
Parking maximums may be exceeded under the following circumstances:
-Structured above-ground or under-ground parking is provided on site.
-Shared parking agreement is executed.
-All parking spaces are located behind the building and are not visible from the public right-of-way.
-Driveways and access points are shared by at least two adjacent properties.
-Combining or interconnecting adjacent parking lots and pedestrian access points.
The City Council approved an ordinance amendment to add regulations for the MX-3 Transit Oriented District. The MX-3 District has both parking minimums and parking maximums. Additionally, the ordinance promotes shared parking in this district.
These guidelines are intended to help create a safe and comfortable environment for pedestrians, vehicles and multiple transit modes. They presume that Urban Village mixed use development
efforts have achieved a successful critical mass. Therefore they are designed to be applicable to
the future desired conditions of mixed use, density, and street-level activities. Until that future
condition is in place, some exceptions to these guidelines may be approved for projects developed early in the evolution of the Urban Village.
" The off-street parking requirements contained in the Citys existing zoning ordinances should be reduced in the Urban Village to reflect its proximity to the Citys major employment center, existing public parking, and mass transit. "
Zoning code requirements for parking should identify the maximum parking allowed. "
Additional reductions in off-street parking requirements will be considered when options such as sheltered bicycle parking, participation in car share programs, and other programs, reduce the need for private automobiles. "
Where uses have different peak parking demands, shared parking agreements should be facilitated. "
Consideration should be given to exempting small retail establishments from parking requirements.
" Enclosed parking is encouraged. Parking lots are discouraged, but permitted when they adhere to design guidelines.
" Parking costs should be unbundled from residence purchase costs, rental rates, and employee benefits.
" Payments in lieu of providing required parking should be considered, as well as land banking to satisfy potential future needs.
" Central off-street parking may be needed in selected locations within the Urban Village.
" On-street parking may be considered when calculating parking requirements.
" Meter limits should be set to encourage turnover adjacent to retail establishments.
" Use angled parking wherever possible to maximize number of spaces.
The City does allow for “proof of parking” on development applications to allow for a reduced number of required parking spaces. “At the discretion of the city, specific parking spaces may be shown as ‘demonstrated’ wherein the property or project can be shown to accommodate the minimum required parking spaces but is deemed to be excessive for the current user of the property” (City Code - Section 24-242).