The best reference for outdoor lighting efficiency standards is the Model Lighting Ordinance developed and continuously revised by the International Dark-Sky Association and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.
Bird-Friendly Development Guidelines(City of Toronto, 2007) provides design tips on reducing night-time light pollution and the benefits to birds. See also Bird-Safe Building standards in the State of MN B3 Guidelines, and the Audubon Society's Lights Out challenge through which a city can work with building owners and managers to turn off excess lighting during the months migrating birds are flying overhead, so as to help provide them safe passage between their nesting and wintering grounds.
Summarize the policy or practice for fixtures on city-owned, or school or other governmental buildings.
Summarize policies for fixtures adopted by the city and at least one other entity (the school board, another governmental unit within the city). Aim to limit light trespass to under 1 candle foot at the property line or center of a city street.
Requirements (within State code) for private buildings, OR: installation on public facilities of photosensors on all outdoor light fixtures; installation of timers with seasonal schedules to control when lights turn on and off; cumulative light cast by all property lights under 115 ft-candles at ground level; score under 4 in the Bortle Dark-Sky Scale.
Who's doing it
Duluth - 3 star
Date action report first entered:
Date of last report update:
Year action initially completed: 2012
Duluth's Exterior Lighting Ordinance (UDC 50-31) applies to all city-owned, multi-family, mixed use, commercial, and/or industrial buildings in the city as well as all parking lots. The ordinance requires that:
-Any light emitting more than 900 lumens must be shielded with an IESNA shield with 90% of the light falling below 80 degrees.
-All lighting must be compliant with intensities and uniformity ratios in the IESNA lighting handbook and must meet specific minimum and maximum illumination values as set forth in the Minnesota Energy Code.
-Light pole height, sign illumination, and service stations/convenience stores follow certain guidelines.
-Fixture illuminating monuments or statues shall emit only a narrow beam of light.
Section 544.09 of the Zoning Code includes outdoor lighting requirements consistent with Dark-Sky principles. The Code applies to both public and privately owned property. However, the Code requires metal halide lighting, although it is common practice citywide to now replace with LED.
The City of Royalton is committed to achieving "dark sky" compliance for its city and as a result the Planning & Zoning Commission and City Council have adopted an ordinance requiring lighting to be "dark sky" compliant
Outcome measures/metrics/money saved:
The ordinance is in place and future lighting in the city (residential, commercial and street lighting) will comply with this ordinance.
In 2007 the City reconstructed its main street through its downtown. This improvement included decorative lights which are dark sky compliant. City ordinance also requires all new private parking lot lights to be of the same or similar design to the City lights, meaning that all new private parking lot lighting is also dark sky compliant.
Development code sets standards for lighting in all zoning districts providing that any lighting used to illuminate an off-street parking area or other structure or area shall be arranged as to deflect light away from any adjoining property or from the public street.
1. Shielding. The luminaire shall contain a cutoff that directs and cuts off the light at an angle of 90 degrees or less.
2. Intensity. No light source or combination thereof which casts light on a public street shall exceed 1 foot candle meter reading as measured from the centerline of said street nor shall any light source or combination thereof which casts light on adjacent property exceed 0.4 foot candles as measured at the property line.
Section 4-3 (d) (5) requires cut sheets for all new proposed lighting so that light intensity at or above 90 degrees is no more than two and one-half percent of lamp lumens, and no more than ten percent of lamp lumens at a vertical angle of 80 degrees above nadir.
All of our city buildings have switched our outside lighting to energy efficient, dark sky compliant lighting fixtures. This has been in the works for awhile but we are 100% changed over. We will continue to use these lights to keep our energy usage down and avoid light pollution.
New or replaced outdoor lighting fixtures are all energy efficient, Dark-Sky compliant fixtures. Additionally, almost all new outdoor lighting fixtures are LED. This is overseen by the City of Burnsville's Maintenance Supervisor as a standard, not a policy.
The City recently installed Dark-Sky compliant outdoor lighting at Cottageville Park. There is no policy requiring outdoor lighting on City-owned buildings and facilities to be Dark-Sky compliant, but the City does require them as practice.
The City does not require Dark-Sky compliant fixtures, however, they are considered when replacements are needed. The City has been installing LED fixtures in most of our newest installations but have not adopted this as a defined policy. We have replaced 1,500 fixtures with both state and federal funding, as well as City contributions. We are replacing between 500 and 800 more fixtures in high speed/high volume roadway areas this year.